DNA Repair Pathways are as Novel Therapeutic Targets
Keywords:DNA damage, DNA repair, PARP inhibitors, Cancer
Oxygen is essential for life however it may be toxic and mutagenic through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including free radicals. ROS generation can be considered a double-edged sword. It is known as the oxygen paradox (good or bad effects of oxygen). ROS can give damage to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and lipids. Most of damages can repair by DNA repair systems and antioxidant defense system which a have major roles to eliminate ROS. DNA repair systems also have major roles in the development of many diseases, notably, cancer. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US, exceeded only by heart disease. Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States. This year, about 600,920 Americans are expected to die of cancer – that’s more than 1,650 people a day. The financial costs of cancer are high for both the person with cancer and for society as a whole. The Agency for Healthcare research and Quality (AHRQ) estimates that the direct medical costs (total of all health care costs) for cancer in the US in 2014 were $87.7 billion. The increasing concern about healthcare costs, use of DNA repair inhibitors in cancer therapy can be effective and providing its targeted therapy close to us personalized medicine. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase Inhibitors (PARPi), one of the DNA repair enzymes, is the first drug used in cancer therapy. In the present review, the process from DNA repair to use as anti-cancer drug is explained in a clear and understandable manner.
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